« Tibetan Inscription on the Stone Monument in Front of the Ta-Chao-Ssu Temple in Lhasa, 822 A.D. »

« Tibetan Inscription on the Stone Monument in Front of the Ta-Chao-Ssu Temple in Lhasa, 822 A.D. » Epigraphia Indica. 1909. Vol. X, p. 89-93.

Francke, August Hermann. “Tibetan Inscription on the Stone Monument in Front of the Ta-Chao-Ssu Temple in Lhasa, 822 A.D.” Epigraphia Indica, vol. X, 1909, pp. 89–93, https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.56268. FRA 1909 a3.


TIBETAN INSCRIPTION ON THE STONE MONUMENT IN FRONT OF THE TA-CHAO-SSU TEMPLE IN LHASA, 822 A.D.

By A. H. FRANCKE.

The stone monument in front of the Ta-chao-ssu temple contains an inscription in Chinese and Tibetan, of the times of the Tibetan king khri btsong lde btsan, half of whose name has been preserved on the stone, as observed by Bushell. The Chinese half of the inscription was translated by S. W. Bushell in his article entitled « The Early History of Tibet » (J.RA.S., Vol. XII, 1880, p. 585 ff). As far as I know, no attempt to read and translate the Tibetan text has as yet been made. My reading of the Tibetan text is based on a rubbing of the inscription, reproduced in Bushell’s article. This rubbing ‘was obtained in Peking in 1869 and was said then, from the condition of the paper, to date at least from the last century.’

Ancient Orthography.

(a) Cases of suffixed d (called drag) occur in phyind (1. 20), phrind (1. 39), mald (1.55) ; the last case is uncertain, On the whole, it is safe to say that the drag is of rare occurrence, and compared with Dr. Stein’s Endere relics.

(b) Subscript y appears below m regularly when the latter is followed by i and e.

(c) Inverted i vowel signs are very common. But no uniform rule is followed in their use.

(d) In line 26 it looks as if chenpo was furnished with the article pho instead of po, as is the case in some of the Endere relics ; but here it may be due to a scratch on the stone. Other instances of the orthography of the Endere relics (8th century A.D.) are not found here. Thus, the final consonant of a syllable is never written below the first consonant; and c and ts are never replaced by ch, and ths, as at Endere.

Palaeographical Notes.

All the vowel signs, with the exception of the i vowel sign, are joined to the consonant base. For the o-sign the left upper end of the consonant is preferred; but in the case of ch, kh and y it touches the middle. The u-sign is joined to the right lower end of the letter and the e-sign to the middle of its upper line, except in the case of s, m and l. With the two former the e-sign finds a place at the left upper end and with l at the right upper end.

p. 90

Euphonic laws.

We find d instead of t after g in gcigdu (1. 5), yogdu (1. 44), stse zhung chegdu (1. 44), and yigdu (1. 77) ; b instead of p after g in yang thagbar (1. 31) (ordinarily yang dagpar). The form ‘adrul (1. 40) instead of ‘agrul shows that the modern pronunciation was already in vogue in 822 A.D. (Compare my notes on the Endere relics.) The same may be inferred from lines 75 and 77 where we find the genitive instead of the instrumental case.

Some ancient words.

The word phu dud (11. 45, 47) refers to the Chinese custom of shaking the sleeve in greeting a person. Of ancient words the following deserve to be noted : –

ba (1. 56) and ‘aba (1. 57), both meaning ‘subjects (?)’ ; mjal dum (11. 5 ff.) assembly, composed of mjal, ‘meet’ and ‘aduba, gather; gnyi (1. 58) instead of nyi, sun; ‘adzimpa (1. 76) instead of ‘adzinpa, seize.

INSCRIPTION FROM LHASA.
ROMANISED TEXT.
[Doubtful readings are put in brackets.]

1 Bodkyi rgyalpo chenpo
2 ‘aphrulg(y)i lha btsanpo dang
3 rgyai rgyalpo chenpo rgya rje hvangte
4 dbon zhang gnyis, chab srid
5 gcigdu (s)olnas, mjal dum
6 chenpo mdzadde gtsigs
7 pa, nampar yang myi ‘agyur
8 lha myi kun • • • • • • • • • • shesshing dpang byas
9 te, thse thse • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (rdo)
10 (r)u yongbai
11 gyi (mang) rdor
12 • • • • • • • • • •
13 ‘aphrulgyi
14 lde brtsangyi
15 bunbu heuta
16 zhang gnyis
17 ni, • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • gyi
18 nyesci • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (zh)ug, rjechen
19 pos yni, bka • • • • • • • • • gyis dkrabpa
20 la phyind myedpas, mangpo kun bde
21 skyidpa(r) byabala (n)i dgongspa gcig,
22 • • • • • • • ringpor leg • • • • • i don chenpo
23 • • • • • • • ni bka gros mthunte,
24 ringpar myi zhu m
25 dgyespai • • • • • • • • • • • ‘(tsi)gpar
26 molnas, mjal dum chenp(h)o
27 mdzadde, bod rgya gnyis, da ltar
28 • • • • • • • mngabai yul dang mthsams (srung)

p. 91

29 zhing, dei shar phyogs thamscad ni,
30 rgya chenpoi yul, nub phyogs thams
31 cad ni yang thagbar bod chenpoi
32 yul(d), de las phan thsun dgrar nyi
33 ‘athab, dmag myi dang, yul myi
34 rnams, yid ma chespa khrig (y)od
35 na, myi bzungzhing gtam driste,
36 brdzangsnas phyir gtang ngo
37 da chab srid gcig cing, mjal
38 dum chenpo ‘adi ltar mdzadpas,
39 dbon zhang dgyespai bka phrind
40 snyanpas kyang ‘adrul dgoste,
41 phan thsungyi phonya ‘adongbayang, lam
42 (rny)ingpar byungnas, snga lugs bzhin,
43 bod rgya gnyiskyi (bapa) (tso)ng kun
44 yogdu rta brjesla, stse zhung chegdu
45 rgya dang phradpa mancad ni rgyas phu dud
46 bya, ceng shu hyvan du bod dang phradpa
47 yancad ni bodkyis phu dud byaste,
48 dbon zhang nyezhing gnyenbai thsul bzhin
49 du, sri zhu dang bkur stii lugs
50 yodpar sbyarte, yul gnyiskyi
51 barna dud rdul ni myi snang, glo bur
52 du sdangba dang dgrai mying ni myi gragste
53 mthsams srungbai myi yancad
54 kyang dogs shing ‘jigs pa myedpar
55 • • • • • • • • • (mal mald snga)gpa rkyangste,
56 ba (‘a)khodcing, skyidpai bka drin
57 ni ‘ab(a) khrii bardu thog, snyanpai
58 (gsu)ng gnyi zlas (slebs)
59 khyabste, bod bod yulna skyid,
60 rgya rgya yulna skyidpai srid chenpo
61 (sbyar)nas gtsigs bcaspa dang
62 nampar myi ‘agyurbar, dkon mchog
63 gsum dang, ‘aphagspai (na)m(kha)
64 nyi zla dang gza skarla yang dpa(ng)du
65 gsolte, • • • • • • • •(tsig)gi (rnams ba)
66 (bshad.), srog chags bsadde mna
67 (ya)ng bornas gtsigs bcasso
68 (g)tsigs ‘adi bzhindu m(yi) byassam
69 (bshig)na, bod rgya gnyis ganggis sngar nye (s)
70 (pa) • • • • • • sdigcing, landu dku (skyu) ci byas kyang,
71 (gtsigs)
72 • • • • • • • • • • bod rgya gnyiskyi rje blongyis
73 • • • • • • • • • • thugs mna borte, gtsigs
74 kyi • • • • • • • brisnas, rgyalpo chen
75 po gnyiskyi ni phyag rgyas btab, blonpo
76 • • • • • • • • • • • • • ‘adzimpala (gsogs)pa rnams
77 kyi ni (lag) yigdu briste, gtsigskyi
78 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ra bzhaggo

p. 92

TRANSLATION:

I. The great king of Tibet,
2 the incarnate god, the bTsanpo, and
3 the great king of China, Hvangte, the great Chinese,
4 nephew and uncle, both, praying
5 for the unity of their governments,
6 making (causing) a great assembly, importance
7 • • • • • • • • • • • • • never changing
8 • • • • • • • • all gods and men • • • • • • •knowing [it] and giving
9 witness (to it) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • times, times,
10 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • coming
11 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • on a stone
12 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
13 The incarnate
14 • • • • • • • • • • lde btsan
15 Bunbu heuta
16 uncle, both
17 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • of
18 sin • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • by the great
19 sovereigns • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • fighting
20 henceforth not taking place, there is only one wish:
21 that all may be (may be made) in great happiness.
22 • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • long lasting • • • • • • •great meaning
23 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • agreeing in their counsel
24 for a long time, without amendment
25 be pleased
26 so saying, making a great assembly,
27 Tibet and China, both retaining the countries
28 which they own now;
29 everything to the East is
30 the country of great China, everything to the West .
31 is certainly the country of great Tibet.
32 Neither of them [must] fight
33 like an enemy. Such soldiers and citizens
34 as are clearly distrustful,
35 [such] men [must] be seized, and questions being asked,
36 [must be] despatched and sent back.
37 Now, there being union of government,
38 and such a great assembly being made,
39 uncle and nephew being pleased with such glorious tidings,
40 there must be travelling, (communication),
41 mutual envoys going and,
42 this taking place on the old road, in the former way,
43 the Tibetans and the Chinese, both,
44 • • • • • • • • shall barter horses (literally, for horse bartering). At Stse zhung cheg
45 meeting with the Chinese, thither, the Chinese shall show honor.
46 At Cheng shu hyvan, meeting with the Tibetans,
47 hither, the Tibetans shall show honor.
48 For, as nephew and uncle are closely related, it must be done in a friendly way,

p. 93

49 being connected with manners of respect
50 and honor. Between the two countries
51 smoke and dust shall not be seen, sudden
52 hostility and the name of enmity shall not be heard of.
53 There shall be no fear and anxiety, hither,
54 on account of frontier guards.
55 Everywhere praise spreading
56 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • dwelling, the kindness of happiness
57 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • up to 10,000. The glorious
58 sounds shall reach the sun and moon,
59 and cover [all]. The Tibetans shall be happy in Tibet.
60 The Chinaman shall be attached to the great realm of happiness in China.
61 This is of great importance, and
62 that it may never be changed, the three
63 gods, the august heaven,
64 sun, moon, the planets and the stars, are asked to witness it.
65 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
66 • • • • • • • • • Having killed the animals, and sworn
67 an oath, it was connected with importance.
68 If any one do not according to this importance, or
69 destroy it, Tibetan or Chinese, whoever first commit
70 such crime and sin, in response according to the trick committed,
71 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (importance?)
72 • • • • • • • • • • by the great ministers of both, Tibet and China,
73 swearing an oath, important
74 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • writing. Both the great kings
75 confirm it by seal, the ministers
76 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • and the other ones
77 writing in a (hand ?) letter, important
78 • • • • • • • • • was deposited at

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