« Note on Po-lo-hih-mo-pu-lo and Su-fa-la-na-chu-ta-lo ». Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 1910. n°April, p. 489-490.
Note on Po-lo-hih-mo-pu-lo and Su-fa-la-na Chu-Ta-Lo
The name Po-lo-hih-mo-pu-lo (Hiuen Tsiang) has been correctly transcribed as Brahmapura. But the town of Brahmapura has been erroneously looked for in Garhwal. I am convinced that the ancient Brahmapura, the capital of the Chamba State, is meant. This town is now called Brahmaur. (Compare Dr. Vogel’s Chamba Inscriptions.) Po-lo-hih-mo-pu-lo is given as one of the frontiers of Su-fa-la-na-chü-ta-lo, which has been correctly identified with Suvarnagotra (golden family), evidently the ancient name of Guge, Ruthog, and Eastern Ladakh. The name « Golden Family » was given to these countries on account
of their richness in gold. The frontiers of Suvarnagotra are described so plainly by Hiuen Tsiang that there can be no doubt with regard to its situation. It is situated north of Brahmapura (the ancient Chamba State) ; south of Kustana (Khotan); east of Sampaha (Sanpoho or Ladakh) ; west of Tibet.
Hiuen Tsiang identifies Suvarnagotra with the « Empire of the Eastern Women »; but this is not agreed to by Bushell, who places this empire east of Tibet. Still, I am convinced that Hiuen Tsiang is right in his identification. But it is quite possible that there was another « Empire of the Eastern Women » farther east. The Je River of this empire, flowing to the south, would be the Jhelum, which turns to the south within its limits. » The Turks invaded the country. » They could easily do so, for they were the next neighbours. » The people used the Indian characters for writing. » Traces of Indian inscriptions earlier than 1000 A.D. are found everywhere in Eastern Ladakh. Grave finds in Ladakh show that the ancient inhabitants of the country had the same extraordinary kind of burial which is described in the Sui shu as having been practised in the Empire of the Eastern Women.